HL History China Essay Evidence Compilation

Confucianism was prevalent in 1861 China, as the laws of Filial Piety and promotion of the Mandate of Heaven made justifications for relatively “inhumane acts”

Macartney Mission 1793

1723 – 1861 → 1000% increase in opium

Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 → rise of provinces, Hunan Army overtakes the Green Standard Army under Zeng Guofan

1842 -Treaty of Nanjing 21 mil indemnity
– Extraterritoriality
– Fixed Tariffs at 2.5%

1861 Tsungli Yamen

1862 – 20 – 40 million dead

1862 Interpreters College

1862 – Treaty of Tientsin and Nanjing allowed foreign gunboats to dock at 5 ports .

Foreign Language School 1863

1865 and 1867 Kiangnan and Nanjing Aresenals

Tongzhi Restoration 1861

Scholar Wei Yuan “Learning the superior techniques of the barbarians to control the barbarians”

54 miles from Taku to Tientsin (radio)

1873 Foochow Dockyard , French and British expertise utilised

1874 – Ryuukyu Islands Occupation, Japan takes it and China has to pay half a million taels back as indemnity.

1878 – 1889 → Iron Mills, Paper, Textile and Cloth

Historiography : Hsu : Lack of Capital , Gray : Extensive trade provided revenues

Boxer Rebellion 1899-1901

1901 Boxer Protocol – 450 Million Taels of Indemnities, according to article 6
– Negotiated by Rong Lu and Li Hongzhang

Boxer Protocol; Article 5: No more weapons

100 lambs, 2 tigers and 1 dragon – Overthrow even the govt. So shows rise of provinces

1900 Cixi announced support for the Boxers

Persecution of the foreigners show poor foreign relations , killed the German Minister June 20

8 Nation alliance of 20,000 troops end the rebellion

Boxer Protocol: Import taxes raised by 5%

Nanjing and Kiangnan, along with the rest of the south refuse to cooperate with Cixi (1900)

Also 25 forts get destroyed

Sino-Japanese War

  • Tianjin Convention : demilitarizes the Korean peninsula, provides equal ground
  • Tong Hak Rebellion after Kim Ok-Kyun was assassinated
  • 1894 Japan declares war on China

Historiography: Gray : Britain and USA saved China after the war economically so they were fine , but Hsu says that Imperial powers feared each other so they were fine.

Britain splendid Isolationist policy
Spanish Civil War

Triple Intervention – Germany, Russia and France to get Japan out of China

Sino-Russian Alliance

35,000 dead, two times more than the losses of the Japanese

Treaty of Shimonoseki
200 million tael indemnity
Give away Liaodong Peninsula
Open 5 ports to Japan
Most-favoured nation status → equivocates to Britain
1898 Reforms

Replacement of 8 legged essay

Preparation of a budget → accountability

Creation of a ministry of army

Encouragement of ideas to be shared

Kang Youwei and Liang Chichao as leading instigators

Emperor Guangxu vs Cixi, where Cixi thinks she is being challenged

Qing Reforms

Hsu : A noisy demonstration without much reform

Aimed for centralization

Provincial Military academies 1901

Equality broke apart the confucianist beliefs (conservatism)

A new royal cabinet for Manchu (8 manchu and 4 chinese)

1908 Cixi died

Also Outline of constitution for 1908 to be 9 more years

1909 Provincial Assemblies

1911 Xinhai Revolution

1907, 6 rebellions

1911 – Removal of Scholars

10th October “Double Tenth” in the Wuchang, Hubei Province
Railway Protection Movement
11th October Flag of 18 stars

10,000 manchus killed indiscriminately

269/596 seats, Guomingdang led by Song Jiaoren

25 million loan from foreign banks

1913 → Second Revolution (7 provinces rebel) eg Kiangsi
Shutdown by militarist (Warlords) like Zhang Xun

1913 → 2 mil income, deficit of 13
YSK bought 400,000 yuan robes

Yuan promoted Confucianism in his curriculum

Hsu – “Yuan laid the groundwork for the period of lawlessness in the decades that followed”

Spence – “Yuan had some pretty good reforms”

1914 – Parliament is dissolved

Under Warlordism → Opium production increased from 3% to 20%

70% illiterate

The Intellectual Revolution

Hu Shi
Promoted the Baihua
Studied under John Dewey
Participated & initiated “A Preliminary Discussion on Literature Reform”
Lu Xun
Through satirical literature, fought conservatism
“A Madman’s Diary”
League of Left-wing Writers
Li Dazhao
“Weekly Critic”
“New Youth”
Co-founder of CCP
Beijing University Director
“Old place for books” → “Place for contemporary literature”
Chen Duxiu
Founder of “New Youth”
Co-founder of CCP

Paul Bailey = It was a continuation of past reforms

Hsu = first mass movement in China ever

Jack = Precipitated change which had only been potential

Emergence of CCP 1921, this promoted :


Congress formation on July 1921

Chinese Seaman’s Union Strike 1922

5 millions western taught students now

3,000 students against JP and TOV on May 4th 1919

May 19th Strike and boycott of Japanese

GMD → Lenin’s two stage plan
First → remove imperialists
Second → communist revolution

1923 United Front

Reinvigoration of GMD

1924 Whampoa Military Academy → Jiang Jieshi


Feng Guozhang
Zhili Clique

Duan Qurei → Lieutenant of Yuan Shikai
Anhui Clique
Zhang Zuolin
Fengtian Clique
Zhang Zongdong

Zhang Xun

Yan Xishan

Wu Peifu

Feng Yuxiang


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